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Computer architecture concentrates on the logical aspects of computer design as opposed to the physical or electronic aspects. The underlying logical design of most modern computers is still based on that of the earliest electronic computers despite decades of progress in electronic circuitry. the innovations that have occurred in computer architecture have been driven by two different goals: higher performance and lower cost. Performance driven improvements have yielded computer systems with increasingly higher computation speeds and throughput. Cost driven improvements have yielded systems that are easier to use and applicable to a broader range of automatic control problems. Improvements in electronic circuitry have not led directly to architectural innovations; computers that pioneered new circuit technologies usually relied on older architectural concepts.