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Principle and Methods on Bistatic SAR Signal Processing via Time Correlation

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3 Author(s)
Shi Jun ; Univ. of Electron. Sci. & Technol. of China, Chengdu ; Xiaoling Zhang ; Jianyu Yang

In this paper, we discuss the mapping between the 3-D scene space and the bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image space and show that when the direction of the angular velocity of the bistatic SAR remains constant, the process of bistatic SAR imaging can be approximately modeled as a perspective operator from the 3-D scene space to the 2-D image space, and the perspective line is perpendicular to the plane determined by the composition direction of the T/R line of sight and the composition direction of the angular velocity of the T/R platform. Then, we show that the 2-D point spread function of the bistatic SAR is determined not only by the range and ldquoazimuthrdquo resolutions but also by the geometry of the bistatic SAR and the bases of the SAR image space, and the concept ldquoambiguity regionrdquo is introduced to describe the ambiguity problem in the 3-D scene space. Then, the range-Doppler algorithm is discussed, and a new translational-variant bistatic SAR imaging method is proposed, which uses the scaled inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) technique to eliminate the translational-variant feature of the SAR space resolution. The space truncation error of this new algorithm is discussed to analyze the depth of focus of the scaled IFFT bistatic SAR imaging algorithms, and we find that the upper bounce of the space truncation error is proportional to the square of the distance from the scatterer to the T/R platforms. Last, the effects of motion measurement errors are discussed in detail, and, through theoretical analysis and numerical experiments, we show that the absolute position measurement error, the baseline measurement error, the perpendicular (vertical) component of the absolute velocity measurement error (AVME), and the perpendicular component of the relative velocity measurement error (RVME) cause SAR image shifting in the image space mainly, and the parallel component of the AVME and the parallel component of the RVME cause the SAR image to s- - everely defocus.

Published in:

Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:46 ,  Issue: 10 )