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A new method for the design of optical fiber refractometric sensors based on nonuniform long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) is presented. A specialized genetic algorithm (GA) with properly designed operators is a fundamental element of this method and performs the theoretical synthesis of a necessary nonuniform LPFG period profile. Such a profile yields a linear response of the sensor to the refractive index of the external medium. A distinctive feature of the designed LPFG is a linear gradient of the core and cladding refractive index along the grating length. Also, a new mathematical model of nonuniform LPFGs is presented, the model permits to take into account the effect of some LPFG sections of a lower and others of a higher cladding refractive index than that of the external medium. The application of both the design method and the mathematical model is illustrated with a numerical example.
Date of Publication: July 2008