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We present a new approach to face relighting by jointly estimating the pose, reflectance functions, and lighting from as few as one image of a face. Upon such estimation, we can synthesize the face image under any prescribed new lighting condition. In contrast to commonly used face shape models or shape-dependent models, we neither recover nor assume the 3-D face shape during the estimation process. Instead, we train a pose- and pixel-dependent subspace model of the reflectance function using a face database that contains samples of pose and illumination for a large number of individuals (e.g., the CMU PIE database and the Yale database). Using this subspace model, we can estimate the pose, the reflectance functions, and the lighting condition of any given face image. Our approach lends itself to practical applications thanks to many desirable properties, including the preservation of the non-Lambertian skin reflectance properties and facial hair, as well as reproduction of various shadows on the face. Extensive experiments show that, compared to recent representative face relighting techniques, our method successfully produces better results, in terms of subjective and objective quality, without reconstructing a 3-D shape.
Date of Publication: Aug. 2008