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Information and communication technologies (ICT), in general, and the Internet, in particular, have to a digitalization information and to "always-on" remotely accessible services. To ensure that these services are accessed with appropriate levels of security and privacy, the need for the identification and authentication (I&A) of individuals has increased. For most applications, the I&A process is the first line of defense, which aims to prevent unauthorized access to computer systems. Identification is the means by which a user provides a claimed identity to the system, while authentication relates to the verification of that person's identity, i.e., it ensures that a person is who he/she claims to be.