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In this paper, we consider the connected target coverage (CTC) problem with the objective of maximizing the network lifetime by scheduling sensors into multiple sets, each of which can maintain both target coverage and connectivity among all the active sensors and the sink. We model the CTC problem as a maximum cover tree (MCT) problem and prove that the MCT problem is NP-Complete. We determine an upper bound on the network lifetime for the MCT problem and then develop a (1+w)H(M circ) approximation algorithm to solve it, where w is an arbitrarily small number, H(M circ)=1 lesilesM circ(1/i) and M circ is the maximum number of targets in the sensing area of any sensor. As the protocol cost of the approximation algorithm may be high in practice, we develop a faster heuristic algorithm based on the approximation algorithm called Communication Weighted Greedy Cover (CWGC) algorithm and present a distributed implementation of the heuristic algorithm. We study the performance of the approximation algorithm and CWGC algorithm by comparing them with the lifetime upper bound and other basic algorithms that consider the coverage and connectivity problems independently. Simulation results show that the approximation algorithm and CWGC algorithm perform much better than others in terms of the network lifetime and the performance improvement can be up to 45% than the best-known basic algorithm. The lifetime obtained by our algorithms is close to the upper bound. Compared with the approximation algorithm, the CWGC algorithm can achieve a similar performance in terms of the network lifetime with a lower protocol cost.
Date of Publication: Dec. 2008