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Lower Extremity Exoskeletons and Active Orthoses: Challenges and State-of-the-Art

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2 Author(s)
Dollar, A.M. ; Div. of Health Sci. & Technol., Harvard/Massachusetts Inst. of Technol., Cambridge, MA ; Herr, H.

In the nearly six decades since researchers began to explore methods of creating them, exoskeletons have progressed from the stuff of science fiction to nearly commercialized products. While there are still many challenges associated with exoskeleton development that have yet to be perfected, the advances in the field have been enormous. In this paper, we review the history and discuss the state-of-the-art of lower limb exoskeletons and active orthoses. We provide a design overview of hardware, actuation, sensory, and control systems for most of the devices that have been described in the literature, and end with a discussion of the major advances that have been made and hurdles yet to be overcome.

Published in:

Robotics, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:24 ,  Issue: 1 )