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A new weak fault component reactance distance relay is proposed in this paper. By adaptive setting of the compensated voltage, the scheme synthesizes the performance of the impedance distance relay and the reactance distance relay. The distance protection relay on the receiving end will misoperate when the fault resistance is larger than the critical resistance. So a new switching criterion is applied to eliminate this disadvantage. Based on that, the proposed scheme can detect the fault with the high fault resistance in the setting coverage, regardless of whether the relay is located at the receiving end or the sending end. Test results from the simulation and experimental conditions show that the new scheme is successful in detecting the internal fault. It has higher sensitivity and selectivity during different conditions than the traditional fault component protection schemes.