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In this paper, we propose a novel threat model-driven security testing approach for detecting undesirable threat behavior at runtime. Threats to security policies are modelled with UML (unified modeling language) sequence diagrams. From a design-level threat model we extract a set of threat traces, each of which is an event sequence that should not occur during the system execution. The same threat model is also used to decide what kind of information should be collected at runtime and to guide the code instrumentation. The instrumented code is recompiled and executed using test cases randomly generated. The execution traces are collected and analyzed to verify whether the aforementioned undesirable threat traces are matched. If an execution trace is an instance of a threat trace, security violations are reported and actions should be taken to mitigate the threat in the system. Thus the linkage between models, code implementations, and security testing are extended to form a systematic methodology that can test certain security policies.