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CT Saturation Calculations: Are They Applicable in the Modern World?—Part I: The Question

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3 Author(s)
Cosse, R.E. ; Powell Electr. Syst., Inc, Houston, TX ; Dunn, D.G. ; Spiewak, R.M.

Previously, ANSI/IEEE relay current transformer (CT) sizing criteria were based on traditional symmetrical calculations that are usually discussed by technical articles and manufacturers' guidelines. In 1996, IEEE Standard C37.110-1996 introduced (1+X/R) offset multiplying, current asymmetry, and current distortion factors, officially changing the CT sizing guideline. A critical concern is the performance of fast protective schemes (instantaneous or differential elements) during severe saturation of low-ratio CTs. Will the instantaneous element operate before the upstream breaker relay trips? Will the differential element misoperate for out-of-zone faults? The use of electromagnetic and analog relay technology does not assure selectivity. Modern microprocessor relays introduce additional uncertainty into the design/verification process with different sampling techniques and proprietary sensing/recognition/trip algorithms. This paper discusses the application of standard CT accuracy classes with modern ANSI/IEEE CT calculation methodology. This paper is the first of a two-part series; Part II provides analytical waveform analysis discussions to illustrate the concepts conveyed in Part I

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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:43 ,  Issue: 2 )