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A Robust Audio Watermark Representation Based on Linear Chirps

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3 Author(s)
S. Erkucuk ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Ryerson Univ., Toronto, Ont. ; S. Krishnan ; M. Zeytinoglu

In this paper, we introduce a novel watermark representation for audio watermarking, where we embed linear chirps as watermark signals. Different chirp rates, i.e., slopes on the time-frequency (TF) plane, represent watermark messages such that each slope corresponds to a unique message. These watermark signals, i.e., linear chirps, are embedded and extracted using an existing watermarking algorithm. The extracted chirps are then postprocessed at the receiver using a line detection algorithm based on the Hough-Radon transform (HRT). The HRT is an optimal line-detection algorithm, which detects directional components that satisfy a parametric constraint equation in the image of a TF plane, even at discontinuities corresponding to bit errors. Simulation results show that HRT correctly detects the embedded watermark message after common signal processing operations for bit error rates up to 20%. The new watermark representation and the postprocessing stage based on HRT significantly improve the performance of the watermark detection process and can be combined with existing watermark embedding/extraction algorithms for increased robustness

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Multimedia  (Volume:8 ,  Issue: 5 )