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Low power dissipation and maximum battery runtime are crucial in portable electronics. With accurate and efficient circuit and battery models in hand, circuit designers can predict and optimize battery runtime and circuit performance. In this paper, an accurate, intuitive, and comprehensive electrical battery model is proposed and implemented in a Cadence environment. This model accounts for all dynamic characteristics of the battery, from nonlinear open-circuit voltage, current-, temperature-, cycle number-, and storage time-dependent capacity to transient response. A simplified model neglecting the effects of self-discharge, cycle number, and temperature, which are nonconsequential in low-power Li-ion-supplied applications, is validated with experimental data on NiMH and polymer Li-ion batteries. Less than 0.4% runtime error and 30-mV maximum error voltage show that the proposed model predicts both the battery runtime and I-V performance accurately. The model can also be easily extended to other battery and power sourcing technologies.
Date of Publication: June 2006