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Roadmap-based motion planning in dynamic environments

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2 Author(s)
van den Berg, J.P. ; Inst. of Inf. & Comput. Sci., Utrecht Univ., Netherlands ; Overmars, M.H.

In this paper, a new method is presented for motion planning in dynamic environments, that is, finding a trajectory for a robot in a scene consisting of both static and dynamic, moving obstacles. We propose a practical algorithm based on a roadmap that is created for the static part of the scene. On this roadmap, an approximately time-optimal trajectory from a start to a goal configuration is computed, such that the robot does not collide with any moving obstacle. The trajectory is found by performing a two-level search for a shortest path. On the local level, trajectories on single edges of the roadmap are found using a depth-first search on an implicit grid in state-time space. On the global level, these local trajectories are coordinated using an A*-search to find a global trajectory to the goal configuration. The approach is applicable to any robot type in configuration spaces with any dimension, and the motions of the dynamic obstacles are unconstrained, as long as they are known beforehand. The approach has been implemented for both free-flying and articulated robots in three-dimensional workspaces, and it has been applied to multirobot motion planning, as well. Experiments show that the method achieves interactive performance in complex environments.

Published in:

Robotics, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:21 ,  Issue: 5 )