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Vehicle positioning with an accuracy of 10 cm or less will enable lane-keeping assistance in addition to other safety benefits when an enhanced lane-level digital map is in place. With constantly evolving technology and sensors, a high-precision positioning system that fits into the automotive market can be expected within the next decade. Such a system will incorporate Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial system (INS) for enhanced positioning performance and availability. In this paper, the technology fields that will have a significant impact on the deployment of a centimeter-level vehicle-positioning system will be discussed. Vision-based lane-recognition (VBLR) systems are relatively mature and have already been introduced to the market for lane-departure warning, etc. However, both systems have some limitations. GPS/INS-based systems may suffer from frequent satellite signal masking or blockage, while vision-based systems do not work well in adverse weather conditions or with poor lane signature. Effectively combining these two technologies can make a robust lane-departure warning system. A precision map was made for the test area near Stuttgart using DaimlerChrysler Research and Technology North America (RTNA)'s map-making approach. A Mercedes S-class equipped with both a vision system and a high-precision GPS/INS was used for the test. The positioning map-matching results and the vision offset are compared and the complementary effectiveness is illustrated.