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Several technologies using threshold-voltage (VTH) tuning are introduced for performance control of a microprocessor. Body-bias and supply-voltage control enable VTH tuning. The design methodology of the tuning system is analytically discussed. Forward body biasing and VTH balancing improves the CMOS circuit performance. Some tuning systems, such as a static body-bias control, an adaptive body-bias control, a supply-voltage/body-bias dual control, are introduced. The VTH tuning enables a microprocessor to operate in the optimum manner.