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Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) enable the communication between mobile nodes via multihop wireless routes without depending on a communication infrastructure. In contrast to infrastructure-based networks, MANET's support autonomous and spontaneous networking and, thus, should be capable of self-organization and -configuration. This paper presents passive autoconfiguration for mobile ad hoc network (PACMAN), a novel approach for the efficient distributed address autoconfiguration of mobile ad hoc networks. Special features of PACMAN are the support for frequent network partitioning and merging, and very low protocol overhead. This is accomplished by using cross-layer information derived from ongoing routing protocol traffic, e.g., address conflicts are detected in a passive manner based on anomalies in routing protocol traffic. Furthermore, PACMAN assigns Internet protocol (IP) addresses in a way that enables their compression, which can significantly reduce the routing protocol overhead. The performance of PACMAN is analyzed in detail based on various simulation results.