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This paper provides a broad review of the cooling technologies for computer products from desktop computers to large servers. For many years cooling technology has played a key role in enabling and facilitating the packaging and performance improvements in each new generation of computers. The role of internal and external thermal resistance in module level cooling is discussed in terms of heat removal from chips and module and examples are cited. The use of air-cooled heat sinks and liquid-cooled cold plates to improve module cooling is addressed. Immersion cooling as a scheme to accommodate high heat flux at the chip level is also discussed. Cooling at the system level is discussed in terms of air, hybrid, liquid, and refrigeration-cooled systems. The growing problem of data center thermal management is also considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of future challenges related to computer cooling technology.
Device and Materials Reliability, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:4 , Issue: 4 )
Date of Publication: Dec. 2004