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The extraordinary characteristics of carbon nanotubes make them a promising candidate for applications in microelectronics. Catalyst-mediated chemical vapor deposition growth is very well suited for selective in-situ growth of nanotubes compatible with the requirements of microelectronics technology. This deposition method can be exploited for carbon nanotube vias. Semiconducting single-walled tubes can be successfully operated as carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFET). A simulation of an ideal CNTFET is presented and compared with the requirements of the ITRS roadmap. Finally, we compare an upgraded CNTFET with the most advanced silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors and discuss integration issues.