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As very large scale integration (VLSI) circuit speeds and density continue to increase, the need to accurately model the effects of three-dimensional (3-D) interconnects has become essential for reliable chip and system design and verification. Since such models are commonly used inside standard circuit simulators for time or frequency domain computations, it is imperative that they be kept compact without compromising accuracy, and also retain relevant physical properties of the original system, such as passivity. In this paper, we describe an approach to generate accurate, compact, and guaranteed passive models of RLC interconnects and packaging structures. The procedure is based on a partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC)-like approach to modeling the impedance of interconnect structures accounting for both the charge accumulation on the surface of conductors and the current traveling in their interior. The resulting formulation, based on nodal or mixed nodal and mesh analysis, enables the application of existing model order reduction techniques. Compactness and passivity of the model are then ensured with a two-step reduction procedure where Krylov-subspace moment-matching methods are followed by a recently proposed, nearly optimal, passive truncated balanced realization-like algorithm. The proposed approach was used for extracting passive models for several industrial examples, whose accuracy was validated both in the frequency domain as well as against measured time-domain data.
Date of Publication: Nov. 2004