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Adaptive cancellation of stationary clutter for a ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radar requires antenna sensing using multiple apertures. In essence, simultaneous independent observations of the target plus clutter are required. Conventionally, multiple antenna apertures can be achieved through the use of physically separated antennas, or antennas which can be controlled so that subsections are used to receive. Herein, the use of reflector antennas to effect multiple phase centres is described. Multiple feedhorns pointed laterally from the focal point of the reflector are first reviewed, with capabilities and limitations discussed. A new technique for achieving multiple phase centres with a reflector antenna is then introduced. This technique is based on the excitation and combination of TE and/or TM modes from a single antenna feedhorn. It is shown that, by proper combination of multiple TE modes from a single feedhorn, radiation patterns with separate phase centres can be produced from the same reflector. TE and TM modes can also be combined to effect the same, but this is omitted for brevity. The characteristics of the resulting radiation patterns are analysed with a view towards maximising the separation of the antenna phase centres while maintaining symmetry between the patterns and minimising the reduction in gain and constant phase beamwidth with respect to the reflector's conventional radiation pattern.
Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, IEE Proceedings (Volume:151 , Issue: 3 )
Date of Publication: 21 June 2004