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Cleanup of subsurface metallic objects such as unexploded ordnance (UXO) constitutes an urgent problem worldwide. The heart of the problem is discrimination, as opposed to detection. Ultra-wideband electromagnetic induction sensors (UWB EMI), operating from a few Hz up to 100s of kHz, have shown considerable promise in subsurface discrimination of metallic objects. Unfortunately, a great many objects, including widespread clutter items, produce very broad, smooth EMI signal patterns, over a number of decades of frequency. Shape identification is complicated by the sensitivity of EMI fields to metal type. UWB ground penetrating radar (GPR) has also shown definite discrimination capability for characterizing subsurface metallic targets. Uninfluenced by metal type, GPR is capable of registering complex natural resonances from which target length can be estimated. Further, examination of the spatial patterns of GPR signals can indicate the (X,Y,Z) locations of targets, even of multiple targets present simultaneously in the incident beam. In this paper we consider potential collaborative roles of UWB GPR and UWB EMI for discrimination of multiple subsurface metallic objects. Rigorous 3-D FDTD models demonstrate GPR's ability to estimate target positions, orientations, and length even when reflections overlap. These data can then be used to constrain inversion of UWB EMI patterns. Processing of EMI measurements based on prior estimates of object location and orientation successfully extracts distinct frequency response signatures for two very closely spaced objects.
Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2003. IGARSS '03. Proceedings. 2003 IEEE International (Volume:7 )
Date of Conference: 21-25 July 2003