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A novel approach to three-dimensional (3-D) gaze tracking using 3-D computer vision techniques is proposed in this paper. This method employs multiple cameras and multiple point light sources to estimate the optical axis of user's eye without using any user-dependent parameters. Thus, it renders the inconvenient system calibration process which may produce possible calibration errors unnecessary. A real-time 3-D gaze tracking system has been developed which can provide 30 gaze measurements per second. Moreover, a simple and accurate calibration method is proposed to calibrate the gaze tracking system. Before using the system, each user only has to stare at a target point for a few (2-3) seconds so that the constant angle between the 3-D line of sight and the optical axis can be estimated. The test results of six subjects showed that the gaze tracking system is very promising achieving an average estimation error of under 1°.
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:34 , Issue: 1 )
Date of Publication: Feb. 2004