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As the technology node progresses, thermal problems are becoming more prominent especially in the developing technology of three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuits. The thermal placement method presented in this paper uses an iterative force-directed approach in which thermal forces direct cells away from areas of high temperature. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to calculate temperatures efficiently during each iteration. Benchmark circuits produce thermal placements with both lower temperatures and thermal gradients while wirelength is minimally affected.
Date of Conference: 9-13 Nov. 2003