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We survey the techniques for image-based rendering (IBR) and for compressing image-based representations. Unlike traditional three-dimensional (3-D) computer graphics, in which 3-D geometry of the scene is known, IBR techniques render novel views directly from input images. IBR techniques can be classified into three categories according to how much geometric information is used: rendering without geometry, rendering with implicit geometry (i.e., correspondence), and rendering with explicit geometry (either with approximate or accurate geometry). We discuss the characteristics of these categories and their representative techniques. IBR techniques demonstrate a surprising diverse range in their extent of use of images and geometry in representing 3-D scenes. We explore the issues in trading off the use of images and geometry by revisiting plenoptic-sampling analysis and the notions of view dependency and geometric proxies. Finally, we highlight compression techniques specifically designed for image-based representations. Such compression techniques are important in making IBR techniques practical.