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Noniterative techniques for GPR imaging through a nonplanar air-ground interface

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2 Author(s)
Walker, P.D. ; Veridian Syst. Div., Ann Arbor, MI, USA ; Bell, M.R.

It is often advantageous to acquire pulse-echo ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements from antennas that are offset from the air-ground interface by a nonnegligible distance, either because the ground's surface is rough, or because measurements must be collected remotely. This paper describes the effects of incorrectly estimating the location of the air-ground interface on GPR images created with the plane-to-plane backpropagation (PPB) method. To compensate for a nonplanar air-ground interface, the wideband time-domain synthetic aperture method is reviewed and reformulated, using Snell's law of refraction, to account for measurements taken some distance above an undulating interface. A modification of the PPB algorithm that accounts for a nonplanar interface is also formulated, and examples of imaging with both methods are given to validate, the algorithms' performance for surface variations that are relatively smooth with respect to the radar waveform wavelengths. Additionally, a method for inferring the surface topography from the radar returns is described. Finally, the modified PPB is demonstrated by imaging buried targets sensed in field-acquired data.

Published in:

Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:40 ,  Issue: 10 )

Date of Publication:

Oct 2002

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