The article described an open-source toolbox for machine vision called Machine Vision Toolbox (MVT). MVT includes more than 60 functions including image file reading and writing, acquisition, display, filtering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration, and color space conversion. MVT can be used for research into machine vision but is also versatile enough to be usable for real-time work and even control. MVT, combined with MATLAB and a model workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for the investigation of machine vision algorithms. The article illustrated the use of a subset of toolbox functions for some typical problems and described MVT operations including the simulation of a complete image-based visual servo system.