This paper introduces Cointegration Theory to address the problem of adaptive target detection in hyperspectral imagery. Cointegration Theory aims at mining a long-term equilibrium relationship, which refers to the condition that an appropriate linear combination of several non-stationary series can be stationary as long as they have similar or related drift. Hyperspectral response sequences, which are highly non-stationary, have similar patterns among the same materials. To be treated as a time series, each given hyperspectral curve is matched with the reference spectrum via the Johansen Cointegration Test. The statistic of the test is then used for target detection. Experimental results indicate that our proposed method is effective and has a strong capacity to identify interesting objects from their background.