The emergence of RFID applications has huge influence to become pervasive in modern life. However the vulnerability of the transmission through the air and the unique identification number of RFID tag are the drawbacks that impact the popularity of RFID technology. In this paper, a mutual authentication protocol is proposed based on the challenge - response model. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is used as a cryptographic primitive to secure the data. The experimental works are carried out to validate the protocol in term of security and privacy. The timing analysis is also presented and applied to a case study of conveyor belt system.