In this paper, a method for automatic transcription of music signals based on joint multiple-F0 estimation is proposed. As a time-frequency representation, the constant-Q resonator time-frequency image is employed, while a novel noise suppression technique based on pink noise assumption is applied in a preprocessing step. In the multiple-F0 estimation stage, the optimal tuning and inharmonicity parameters are computed and a salience function is proposed in order to select pitch candidates. For each pitch candidate combination, an overlapping partial treatment procedure is used, which is based on a novel spectral envelope estimation procedure for the log-frequency domain, in order to compute the harmonic envelope of candidate pitches. In order to select the optimal pitch combination for each time frame, a score function is proposed which combines spectral and temporal characteristics of the candidate pitches and also aims to suppress harmonic errors. For postprocessing, hidden Markov models (HMMs) and conditional random fields (CRFs) trained on MIDI data are employed, in order to boost transcription accuracy. The system was trained on isolated piano sounds from the MAPS database and was tested on classic and jazz recordings from the RWC database, as well as on recordings from a Disklavier piano. A comparison with several state-of-the-art systems is provided using a variety of error metrics, where encouraging results are indicated.