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The relationship between capital structure and firm value, corporate performance is the key component of corporate finance theory. Based on the basic theory of corporate finance, this article analyzes 1276 companies in Shenzhen and Shanghai with data mining technology to explore the influence on corporate performance by capital structure in Chinese special economic environment, establishes the corresponding relationship between different combinations of capital structure characteristics and the level of corporate performance, to provide reference and basis of how to reasonably arrange the capital structure and enhance the performance level.