A typical approach in supervised learning is to select an accuracy measure and train a predictor that maximizes it. This can be insufficient in remote-sensing applications where predictor performance is often evaluated over multiple domain-specific accuracy measures. Here, we test the hypothesis that predictors can be trained to maximize performance over multiple accuracy measures. To do this, we evaluate several metalearning algorithms on the problem of aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval. The multiple accuracy measures included mean squared error, correlation, relative squared error, and fraction of satisfactory predictions. The proposed metalearning algorithms have a two-layer architecture, where the first layer consists of multiple neural networks, each trained using a different accuracy measure, and the second layer aggregates decisions of the first layer predictors. To evaluate AOD predictors, we used nearly 70 000 collocated data points whose attributes were radiances, solar and view angles, and terrain elevation from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument satellite observations and whose target AOD variable was obtained from the ground-based AEROsol robotic NETwork (AERONET) instruments. The data were collected at 221 AERONET locations over the globe in the period between 2005 and 2007. AOD prediction accuracies of neural networks were compared to the recently developed operational MODIS C005 retrieval algorithm and to several other data-mining methods. Results showed that neural networks are better at reproducing the test data than the operational retrieval algorithm and that predictors obtained by metalearning are robust over multiple accuracy measures.