A process for fabricating experimental Josephson integrated circuits is described that is based primarily on the use of vacuum-deposited Pb-alloy and SiO films patterned by photoresist stencil lift-off. The process has evolved from one previously reported, with changes having occurred in junction electrodes, tunnel barrier formation, layer patterning, device geometry, and minimum linewidths. Films of Pb-In(12 wt%)-Au(4 wt%) alloy (200–800 nm thick) are used for forming junction base electrodes, interferometer controls, and interconnection lines. Tunnel barriers are formed on the base electrode films by thermal oxidation and subsequent sputter-etching in an rf-oxygen plasma. Junction counter electrodes are formed from 400-nm-thick Pb-Bi(29 wt%) alloy films. Ground planes are formed from 300-nm-thick Nb films patterned by subtractive etching and insulated in part by a Nb2O5 layer formed by liquid anodization. Films of the intermetallic compound AuIn2 (30–43 nm thick) are used for forming terminating, load, and damping resistors. The SiO films are used for interlayer insulation, for defining junction areas in interferometers, and as protective coatings. Layer patterning is achieved mainly by means of photoresist lift-off stencils. By utilizing this process, experimental logic and memory circuits containing ≈100 interferometers with lines as small as 2.5 µm in width have been successfully fabricated.
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