The performance of devices an circuits is advancing at a rapid pace with the advent of submicron design ground rules and switching times under 50 ps. The requirements for probing the internal nodes of these ultra-fast, -small, and -dense circuits give rise to great challenges for high-speed electron-beam testing. In this paper, we review the steps which have allowed electron-beam testing to achieve simultaneously 5-ps temporal resolution, 0.1-µm spot size, and 3 mV/√Hz voltage sensitivity. The resulting newly developed instrument, called the picosecond photoelectron scanning electron microscope (PPSEM), is capable of measuring the state-of-the-art bipolar and FET circuits and also VLSI passive interconnects.
Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.