Many analytical techniques can provide information regarding the chemical state, structure, and properties of materials. This paper focuses on two; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and their application to the study of electrochemically formed oxide films. A brief review of the phenomena underlying these techniques is provided, along with a description of the commonly used means for implementing them. Their capabilities and limitations are discussed, with an emphasis on the study of passive film composition and oxidation state. A summary of the behavior of Cr in oxide films on Al-Cr alloys is presented as an example. The coordinated use of both XPS and XAS is shown to be useful in achieving full understanding of materials systems such as electrochemically formed oxide films.
Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.