Reviews on the historical growth of the semiconductor industry usually refer to the prediction by Gordon Moore in 1975 that circuit density would double every couple of years. The realization of this dramatic increase in integration over the last twenty-five years has been achieved primarily through lithographic scaling, resulting from many innovations in lithographic exposure systems, masks, resists, processes, and metrology. Throughout this period IBM has made many of the most significant contributions to the development of semiconductor lithographic technology. These contributions were often made long before industry adoption and frequently involved innovations across multiple disciplines.
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