This paper presents an overview of the design of electrochemical processing equipment for semiconductor and related microelectronic manufacturing as well as a review of publications that are applicable to electrochemical wafer process equipment. We discuss several types of electrochemical processes applicable to wafer processing and the considerations that go into automated equipment for these processes. The design of such equipment is considered from a general perspective, as well as specifically with respect to several electrochemical processes. We also present results from reactor-scale modeling of several associated systems. The modeling results have been used to understand the effects of process parameters and hardware design on the results achieved.
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