This paper reviews existing security mechanisms for aeronautical data link communication: current support and availability of such features are described. With an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model-driven analysis, each solution is classified and analyzed according to the layer where security is deployed and a relevant taxonomy is proposed. Moreover, advantages, drawbacks, and possible threats of every security mechanisms previously introduced are discussed. According to this security infrastructure overview, a proposal for an efficient security architecture adapted to the aeronautical context is made for future studies. Satellite communication-based system specific problematic is taken into account with a constraint bandwidth and the need of reduced overhead for any additional mechanisms.