We address the issue of noise robustness of reconstruction techniques for frequency-domain optical-coherence tomography (FDOCT). We consider three reconstruction techniques: Fourier, iterative phase recovery, and cepstral techniques. We characterize the reconstructions in terms of their statistical bias and variance and obtain approximate analytical expressions under the assumption of small noise. We also perform Monte Carlo analyses and show that the experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical predictions. It turns out that the iterative and cepstral techniques yield reconstructions with a smaller bias than the Fourier method. The three techniques, however, have identical variance profiles, and their consistency increases linearly as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio.