Wireless networks are fundamentally limited by the intensity of the received signals and by their interference. Since both of these quantities depend on the spatial location of the nodes, mathematical techniques have been developed in the last decade to provide communication-theoretic results accounting for the networks geometrical configuration. Often, the location of the nodes in the network can be modeled as random, following for example a Poisson point process. In this case, different techniques based on stochastic geometry and the theory of random geometric graphs -including point process theory, percolation theory, and probabilistic combinatorics-have led to results on the connectivity, the capacity, the outage probability, and other fundamental limits of wireless networks. This tutorial article surveys some of these techniques, discusses their application to model wireless networks, and presents some of the main results that have appeared in the literature. It also serves as an introduction to the field for the other papers in this special issue.