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Dislocations are observed in germanium crystals (9° off axis toward the  direction) that have undergone plastic deformation. Optical microscopy reveals that the substrates exhibit a crosshatch pattern, consisting of ridges and trenches that extend in the  and [011¯] directions. Further characterization of these features with scanning tunneling microscopy shows that they consist of bands of steps. These bands are created when a group of dislocations emerge onto the crystal surface from the bulk. The dislocations are determined to be type (a/2)<011>. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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