We discuss the generation, detection, and long-haul transmission of single-polarization differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) signals at a line rate of 53.5 Gbaud to support a net information bit rate of 100 Gb/s. In the laboratory, we demonstrate 10-channel wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) point-to-point transmission over 2000 km on a 150-GHz WDM grid, and 1200-km optically routed networking including 6 reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs) on a 100-GHz grid. We then report transmission over the commercial, 50-GHz spaced long-haul optical transport platform LambdaXtremereg. In a straight-line laboratory testbed, we demonstrate single-channel 700-km transmission, including an intermediate ROADM. On a field-deployed, live traffic bearing Verizon installation between Tampa and Miami, Florida, we achieve 500-km transmission, with no changes to the commercial system hardware or software and with 6 dB system margin. On the same operational system, we finally demonstrate 100-Gb/s DQPSK encoding on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and the transmission of real-time video traffic.