The variety of human settlements and their spatial characteristics can be captured by means of remote sensors on board of airborne and/or satellite platforms. Urban remote sensing, however, is much more than visual display or even interpretation and analysis of these images. Quantitative evaluation of physical properties such as land covers and material status, as well as the inference of further information such as land uses, are at the core of this research field. This issue tries and shows some of the innovative researches going on and provides an overview of the state-of-the-art. It also describes some of the challenges to be faced in the near future.