Shape matching plays a prominent role in the comparison of similar structures. We present a unifying framework for shape matching that uses mixture models to couple both the shape representation and deformation. The theoretical foundation is drawn from information geometry wherein information matrices are used to establish intrinsic distances between parametric densities. When a parameterized probability density function is used to represent a landmark-based shape, the modes of deformation are automatically established through the information matrix of the density. We first show that given two shapes parameterized by Gaussian mixture models (GMMs), the well-known Fisher information matrix of the mixture model is also a Riemannian metric (actually, the Fisher-Rao Riemannian metric) and can therefore be used for computing shape geodesics. The Fisher-Rao metric has the advantage of being an intrinsic metric and invariant to reparameterization. The geodesic-computed using this metric-establishes an intrinsic deformation between the shapes, thus unifying both shape representation and deformation. A fundamental drawback of the Fisher-Rao metric is that it is not available in closed form for the GMM. Consequently, shape comparisons are computationally very expensive. To address this, we develop a new Riemannian metric based on generalized phi-entropy measures. In sharp contrast to the Fisher-Rao metric, the new metric is available in closed form. Geodesic computations using the new metric are considerably more efficient. We validate the performance and discriminative capabilities of these new information geometry-based metrics by pairwise matching of corpus callosum shapes. We also study the deformations of fish shapes that have various topological properties. A comprehensive comparative analysis is also provided using other landmark-based distances, including the Hausdorff distance, the Procrustes metric, landmark-based diffeomorphisms, and the bending energies of the th- - in-plate (TPS) and Wendland splines.