We present a system for the online, in vitro, nondestructive monitoring of tissue growth within microporous polymer scaffolds. The system is based on measuring the admittance of the sample over a frequency range of 10-200 MHz using an open-ended coaxial probe and impedance analyzer. The sample admittance is related to the sample complex permittivity (CP) by a quasi-static model of the probe's aperture admittance. A modified effective medium approximation is then used to relate the CP to the cell volume fraction. The change of cell volume fraction is used as a measure of tissue growth inside the scaffold. The system detected relative cell concentration differences between microporous polymer scaffolds seeded with 0.4, 0.45, 0.5, and 0.6 x 106 pre-osteoblast cells. In addition, the pre-osteoblast proliferation within 56 scaffolds over 14 days was recorded by the system and a concurrent DNA assay. Both techniques produced cell proliferation curves that corresponded to those found in literature. Thus, our data confirmed that the new system can assess relative cell concentration differences in microporous scaffolds enabling online nondestructive tissue growth monitoring.