Skip to Main Content
IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards,
eBooks, and eLearning courses.
Learn more about:
IEEE Xplore subscriptions
Modern direct-heart pacing owes its origin to three situations: 1) chloroform anesthesia, 2) hypothermia, and 3) atriaventricular (A-V) block due to myocardial ischemia or disease. This article describes these three origins.
A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest professional association for the advancement of technology.© Copyright 2014 IEEE - All rights reserved. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.