Statistical modeling methods are becoming indispensable in today's large-scale image analysis. In this paper, we explore a computationally efficient parameter estimation algorithm for two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) hidden Markov models (HMMs) and show applications to satellite image segmentation. The proposed parameter estimation algorithm is compared with the first proposed algorithm for 2-D HMMs based on variable state Viterbi. We also propose a 3-D HMM for volume image modeling and apply it to volume image segmentation using a large number of synthetic images with ground truth. Experiments have demonstrated the computational efficiency of the proposed parameter estimation technique for 2-D HMMs and a potential of 3-D HMM as a stochastic modeling tool for volume images.