Laser ablation of single-crystalline indium phosphide (InP) was performed in air by means of linearly polarized Ti : sapphire femtosecond pulses (800 nm, 130 fs, 10 Hz). As a result of the irradiation with a variable number of laser pulses per spot (N ≤ 5), several morphological changes (crater formation, rim formation, ripple structures, and cones) were observed. These effects were explored using force modulation microscopy (FMM), a technique based on scanning force microscopy, allowing the simultaneous imaging of both topography and local stiffness at a high lateral resolution. The first laser pulse induces the formation of a protruding rim (height < 20 nm, width ≈ 300 nm) bordering the ablated crater. A Fourier analysis of the multipulse generated topographies reveals the formation of wavelength-sized periodic ripples (modulation depth < 100 nm) with an orientation perpendicular to that of the electric field vector of the laser radiation. Besides these morphological alterations, material modifications were also observed in the irradiated regions by means of the FMM technique. Within the ablated craters, local stiffness variations were found revealing an inhomogeneous material composition/structure as a consequence of the femtosecond pulse laser treatment.