PCA, LDA, and Bayesian analysis are the three most representative subspace face recognition approaches. In this paper, we show that they can be unified under the same framework. We first model face difference with three components: intrinsic difference, transformation difference, and noise. A unified framework is then constructed by using this face difference model and a detailed subspace analysis on the three components. We explain the inherent relationship among different subspace methods and their unique contributions to the extraction of discriminating information from the face difference. Based on the framework, a unified subspace analysis method is developed using PCA, Bayes, and LDA as three steps. A 3D parameter space is constructed using the three subspace dimensions as axes. Searching through this parameter space, we achieve better recognition performance than standard subspace methods.