This paper presents techniques for speech-to-text and speech-to-speech automatic summarization based on speech unit extraction and concatenation. For the former case, a two-stage summarization method consisting of important sentence extraction and word-based sentence compaction is investigated. Sentence and word units which maximize the weighted sum of linguistic likelihood, amount of information, confidence measure, and grammatical likelihood of concatenated units are extracted from the speech recognition results and concatenated for producing summaries. For the latter case, sentences, words, and between-filler units are investigated as units to be extracted from original speech. These methods are applied to the summarization of unrestricted-domain spontaneous presentations and evaluated by objective and subjective measures. It was confirmed that proposed methods are effective in spontaneous speech summarization.