The combination of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signal processing with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is regarded as a promising solution for enhancing the data rates of next-generation wireless communication systems operating in frequency-selective fading environments. To realize this extension of OFDM with MIMO, a number of changes are required in the baseband signal processing. An overview is given of the necessary changes, including time and frequency synchronization, channel estimation, synchronization tracking, and MIMO detection. As a test case, the OFDM-based wireless local area network (WLAN) standard IEEE 802.11a is considered, but the results are applicable more generally. The complete MIMO OFDM processing is implemented in a system with three transmit and three receive antennas, and its performance is evaluated with both simulations and experimental test results. Results from measurements with this MIMO OFDM system in a typical office environment show, on average, a doubling of the system throughput, compared with a single antenna OFDM system. An average expected tripling of the throughput was most likely not achieved due to coupling between the transmitter and receiver branches.